* SKULPTURE U ATELJEU KAMEN / STONE SCULPTURES IN ATELIER * SKULPTURE U ATELJEU STAKLO / GLASS SCULPTURES IN ATELIER* SLJEDEĆA IZLOŽBA / NEXT EXHIBITION1. VENERE / VENUSES2. ANĐELI / ANGELS3. FIGURE / FIGURES4.ANIMALIZAM / ANIMALISM5. OBJEKTI / OBJECTS6. RAZNO / VARIOUS7.SKULPTURE U PARKU / SCULPTURES IN PUBLIC PARKS8. STAKLENE SKULPTURE / GLASS SCULPTURESPRESS-INFO-FOTO O UMJETNIKU
ZVONKO MAKOVIĆ      
STAKLENE SKULPTURE

Stotinjak skulptura u staklu manjega formata, koje Petar Hranuelli po prvi puta izlaže kao cjelinu na ovoj izložbi, nastalo je tijekom nepune posljednje dvije godine. Za razliku od uobičajenih skulptura koje su radili klasici ovoga umijeća, Hranuelli svoje radove izvodi na pomalo hibridan način. Izvodi ih kao da nije staklo materijal što ga oblikuje, nego kamen, štoviše mramor. Zaista, riječ je o identičnome postupku brušenja i glačanja do različitoga stupnja glatkoće i sjaja površine. Kipar uzima staklo koje je preostalo od talenja, komade koji su izlomljeni i nepravilnoga su oblika, različite prozirnosti, čak i boje. To je materijal namijenjen preradi, točnije recikliranju. Činjenica da su to mahom manji grumeni stakla, uvjet je i veličine skulptura, a donekle i njihova oblika. Prije nego što je počeo raditi u staklu ovaj se kipar potvrdio radeći skulpture u kamenu. Birao je najčešće kamen koji je pronalazio u neposrednoj blizini kako na rodnome Braču, tako još češće u Lici gdje ima atelje ili radi vani. U kamenu je stvorio prototipove svojih novih staklenih skulptura, birao je najčešće ženske figure naslovljavajući ih Venerama ili jednostavno aktovima, ponekad pobliže ističući njihove radnje kojima su zaokupljene. Vrlo često se stjecao dojam kako Hranuelli zahvaća u ikonografske zalihe ili sadržaje iz prošlosti, pa je figurama davao imena iz grčke mitologije ili umjetnosti kasnijih razdoblja u kojima se posezalo upravo u mitološke resurse. Ono što je upadalo u oči, to je da se ovdje ne radi o reprezentaciji vidljivoga svijeta, nego ponavljanju formula koje su se poznavale od ranije. Učestala, mahom ženska tijela nipošto nisu tijela konkretnih živih tijela koja bi kipar promatrao i predstavljao. Figure koje tu nalazimo potječu iz resursa bogatih referencijama, pa bi se stoga moglo govoriti da se radi o nadasve statičnoj, stereotipnoj, ponavljajućoj umjetnosti. Umjetnosti koja figurativni jezik uzima tek kao izliku, a zapravo varira slike različitih figura iz umjetnikove memorije. Jednostavnije rečeno to su prikazi prikaza, likovi likova.

Brojne skulpture iz stakla usavršavaju do maksimuma od ranije dobro apsolviranu formulu primjenjivanu u djelima rađenih u kamenu. Izbor stakla umjesto kamena nudi nove izazove, otvara nove mogućnosti i tijekom rada, ali i u konačnici kada kip zauzme mjesto na postolju. Oblik grumena stakla već na neki način nudi konačan izgled kipa, njegov grubi obris, eventualno grebenaste istake koji se brušenjem prifiliraju i daje im se željena glatkoća i sjaj. Izabrani materijal kvalitetom svojega sastava, točnije boje i prozirnosti nudi osobine koje kipar tijekom brušenja potencira, ili ih odstranjuje. Proces rada stoga je svojevrsni dijalog s materijalom, vrlo osjetljivim koji u konačnici može dovesti do neočekivanih rezultata. Da bi izbjegao neželjeno i zadržao što veću kontrolu nad materijalom, kipar se oslanja na konvencije koje je usvojio od ranije, pa se njegovi kipovi doimaju vrlo sličnima, kao varijacije istih stereotipa, istih formula. „Istost“ tih figura prepoznaje se u naglašenim tjelesnim oblinama, a najčešći njihovi nazivi, poput Venera, Nimfa, Nevjesta, Kentaur, Anđeo... još više ističu kako ovdje zaista nije riječ o viđenju prirode i predstavljanju onoga što se vidi. Riječ je o ponavljanju, kopiranju i variranju formula koje se poznaju od ranije. Jednostavnije rečeno, Hranuellijeva naglašena figurativnost vrlo je dvojbena. Njegovi likovi nisu realni likovi koje on izdvaja iz prirode i transformira ih u područje umjetnosti. On uvijek polazi od nad-prirodnoga, od umjetnoga, od idealne formule kojoj tijekom rada daje tjelesnost i pretavara u skulpture istoga genetskog kôda. Stoga i jesu svi ovi anđeli, nevjeste, kentauri i venere tako slični, jer je naglašen njihov odmak od prirode, baš kao i pripadnost istoj formuli. Plavkasto-zelena boja stakla i njegova prozirnost još je jedan važan stimulans kojim se Hranuellijeve staklene skulpture udaljavaju od predmetnoga, od realnoga svijeta i pomiču u neki idealan, rekao bih sanjani prostor.

Na ovim je djelima svaki detalj zaobljen, tu nema oštrih rubova i šiljatih istaka, a ulegnuća i ispupčeni dijelovi smjenjuju se u blagim prijelazima. Već svojom veličinom, baš kao i promatranjem, ove se figure nemeću ruci, u njima je naglašena taktilnost, upravo podatnost dodiru. Ta im osobina daje stanovitu erotičnost, potiče na milovanje. Dodaju li se tome česte erotske aluzije u nazivima, tada dolazi do preklapanja dojma koji se o njima stječe i izgleda samih figura. Petar Hranuelli ističe erotski naboj kao bitan sadržaj svojih skulptura i pronalazi različite usmjerivače koji gledatelja upućuju na to područje. Time se ovim radovima dodaje dimenzija više, ističe njihov zov u sferu maštarija. Kako su to odreda oblici manjih dimenzija oni se ponekad doimaju nalik igračkama, što baš i nije ispravno kategorizirati ih u to područje. Pišući o ovim skulpturama, mnogi su u njima vidjeli neku vrstu osuvremenjenih pretpovijesnih Venera, idola koji predstavljaju različita (ženska) božanstva. Zbog vrlo često naglašenih seksualnih atributa uspoređivalo ih se s idolima plodnosti, što je potpuno pogrešno. Hranuellijeva namjera nije da svojim figurama daje neke magijske sadržaje, vrijednosti koje krajnje površnim pogledom nekoga mogu asocirati na figure iz pretpovijesti. Nazivajući svoje skulpture ponekad Venerama, on naziv poznatoga lika daje svojem djelu s dozom ironije, baš kao i onda kada prikazuje kentaura i anđele. Iako je u ovim djelima istaknuto ponavljanje, kopiranje jedne sretno pronađene formule, a ne referiranje na viđenu stvarnost i originalnost, nije tu nipošto riječ o praksi koju smo susretali, recimo, u slikara ikona ili majstora koji su izrađivali magijske predmete koji se koriste u ritualne svrhe. Ikonopisci su se klonili originalnosti, a inzistirajući na neprestanom ponavljanju idealnoga predloška svoja su djela uveli u idealan, upravo apstraktan prostor. Hranuellijeva pra-formula potpuno je drugačijeg podrijetla. Ona polazi o izmaštanoga tijela koje svojim atributima ističe fizičku prirodu, čak i onda kada kipovi prikazuju anđele. Njihova se fizičnost prepoznaje u poticanju na dodir, a ne samo na gledanje. Rekao sam kako su ovim skulpturama u staklu prethodile one izrađene u kamenu. U kamenu je kipar definirao svoju formulu, bolje reći oblikovni postupak, ali je osobinama novoga materijala sve to morao mijenjati. Brušenje i poliranje grumena stakla nipošto nije isto kao i brušenje i poliranje komada kamena. Vizualni efekti koji nastaju iz obrade stakla nude prozirnost, sjaj, glatkoću... niz sadržaja koji utječu na estetsku kategoriju ovih djela, a upravo ta kategorija daje ovim radovima posebnost, pa i jedinstvenost u našoj suvremenoj kiparskoj produkciji.

Zvonko Maković
Muzej antičkog stakla u Zadru
06.05. - 12.08. 2019

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GLASS SCULPTURES

About a hundred sculptures in glass of small format that Petar Hranuelli exhibits for the first time as a whole in this exhibition, were made in the period of roughly last two years. As opposed to common sculptures made by classic masters of the craft, Hranuelli makes his works in a sort of a hybrid way. He sculpts them as if he modelled stone, marble and not glass. Indeed it is an identical procedure of grinding and polishing to different degrees of smoothness and lustre of the surface. The sculptor takes glass that is left over after melting, pieces that are broken and of irregular shape, different transparency, or even colour. This material was intended for recycling. The fact that these are mostly small lumps of glass determines the size of the sculptures, and their form to a certain extent. Before he started working in glass Petar Hranuelli earned his reputation as a stone sculptor. Most frequently he chose stone that he found in immediate vicinity on his native island of Brač or even more often in Lika where he has an atelier or he works outside. In stone he made prototypes of his new glass sculptures and he often chose female figures calling them Venuses or simply acts, sometimes emphasizing their momentary actions. Very often one gets an impression that Hranuelli reaches for iconographic archives or contents from the past so that his figures bear names from the Greek mythology or art of later periods that used mythological resources. It is evident that this is not representation of the visible world but repetition of already known formulas. Mostly female bodies are definitely not bodies of specific living bodies observed and represented by the sculptor. Figures that we find here originate from resources rich in references, therefore we might say this is above all static, steretypical, repetitive art, that takes figurative language only as an excuse, and actually varies images of different figures from the artist’s memory. Simply put these are depictions of depictions, figures of figures.

A number of glass sculptures improve to perfection previously mastered formula applied in works madein stone. Choosing glass instead of stone offers new challenges and opens up new possibilities during work, but also at the end when a statue takes its place on a pedestal. Shape of a lump of glass offers final appearance of the statue in a way, its rough contour, possibly some ridgy projections that are polished to shape and given smoothness and lustre. Chosen material through quality of its composition, more precisely colour and transparency offers traits that are accentuated or removed by the sculptor during polishing. Therefore working process is a kind of a dialogue with a very sensitive material that can finally lead to unexpected results. In order to avoid the unwanted and to maintain control over material, the sculptor relies on previously accepted conventions so that his sculptures seem alike, as variations of identical prototypes, identical formulas. “Sameness” of these figures is recognized in emphasized body curves, and the most frequent titles such as Venus, Nymph, Bride, Centaur, Angel... emphasize even more that here we do not have perception of nature and representation of what is seen. We have repeating, copying and varying formulas that are already known. To put it simply Hranuelli’s pronounced figurativeness is very dubious. His figures are not actual figures taken from nature and transformed into the field of art. He always starts from supernatural, from artificial, ideal formula that is given corporeality through his work and turned into sculptures with identical genetic code. Therefore all these angels, brides, centaurs and venuses are so similar because their detachment from nature is emphasized just like attribution to the same formula. Bluish-green color of the glass and its transparency is another important stimulus that detaches Hranuelli’s sculptures from the objective, real world and moves them to some ideal, dream space.

Every detail is rounded on these works, there are no sharp edges and pointed projections, and cavities and concavities alternate in gentle transitions. These figures offer themselves to the hand through their size and appearance, their tactile quality is distinct, their suppleness. This quality gives them certain eroticism, as an invitation to caress. If we add frequent erotic allusions in the titles, we have overlapping of the impression we get about them and appearance of the figures. Petar Hranuelli emphasizes erotic charge as an important part of his sculptures and finds different indicators that direct the viewer to this area. In that way these works get another dimension, their call to the sphere of fantasies is emphasized. Due to small dimensions of the sculptures they sometimes seem like toys, but it is not right to put them into this category. Writing about these sculptures, many authors recognized in them a sort of modernized prehistoric Venuses, idols presenting different (female) deities. Due to emphasized sexual characteristics they were often compared to fertility idols, which is totally wrong. Hranuelli’s intention was not to give some magical qualities to his figures, that might resemble prehistoric figures at a superficial level. When he refers to his figures as Venuses, he gives a title of a famous work with a hint of irony, just like when he depicts centaurs and angels. Although these works emphasize repetition, and copying of a fortunately found formula, and not reference to perceived reality and originality, this is definitely not practice that we found in the icon painters or masters producing magical objects used in rituals. Icon painters stayed away from originality. They insisted on constant repetition of an ideal model introducing in that way ideal, abstract space to their works. Hranuelli’s initial formula is of completely different origin. It starts from a fantasized body that celebrates physical nature by its characteristics, even when statues represent angels. Their physical quality is recognized in inciting touch and not only view. The sculptor defined his formula in stone, or his formative procedure, but he had to change his paradigm due to characteristics of the new material. Grinding and polishing a lump of glass cannot be compared to grinding and polishing a piece of stone. Visual effects that result from glass working offer transparency, lustre, smoothness.... contents that affect aesthetic category of these works, and exactly this category makes these works special, and even unique in our contemporary sculpure.

Zvonko Makovic
Museum of Ancient Glass in Zadar
06.05. - 12.08. 2019



Design R
Copyright 2007 Petar Hranuelli - Design R
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